• Normal potassium: 3.5 – 5 mEq\L


  • Alkalosis + insulin + epinephrine + B-agonists + ↑ aldosterone -> hypokalemia
  • Acidosis + B-blockers + digoxin + cell lysis + ↓ aldosterone -> hyperkalemia


  • Hypokalemia predisposes pt to digoxin toxicity
  • Digoxin toxicity causes hyperkalemia



Heart and muscles: weakness, paralysis, arrhythmias. Nephrogenic DI

Hypokalemia 1


Bartter syndrome: loop of Henle dysfunction (furosemide-like effect)

Gitelman’s syndrome: distal convoluted tubule dysfunction (thiazide-like effect)


Download the PDF version: here


  • Step up to medicine
  • Dr Alqahtani’s lecture

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